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    Standards and guidance for building stone use

    Guides and advice

    British Standards

    There are four types of standards for building and construction: 

    • product requirements; 
    • test methods for products or materials; 
    • guides for the design of buildings and 
    • workmanship. 
    The latter two are known as codes of practice. Sometimes product requirement standards will include the relevant test methods. In others they are published separately. 

    Product standards list the requirements which products or materials must satisfy to be able to claim conformity to a standard and the test methods which must be used to demonstrate this.

    Codes of practice are not mandatory. They make recommendations.

    Scope The most important part of a standard is the scope. This explains which products or materials fall within the standard and sometimes lists those which do not. This is important because all product standards are written to deal with the performance, life expectancy and modes of failure of the specific material. Hence claims of conformity to a standard for a product which is not in that standard's scope are meaningless. As an example, some artificial roofing 'slates' claim conformity to BSEN12326-1 (or its defunct predecessor BS680) when, because they are made of plastic or concrete, their modes of failure are completely different to real slates and are not tested in the roofing slate standard.
     

    Scope of BSEN12326-1 Roofing slates
    This Part of EN 12326 specifies requirements for slate and stone products for roofing, cladding and internal wall lining, as defined in subclauses 3.1, 3.2, and 3.3, used for assembly into discontinuous roofing, cladding (except bonded cladding) or internal wall linings. It does not apply to products for roofing, cladding or internal wall lining made from the following :
    a) Stone other than those defined in subclause 3.1;
    b) Concrete;
    c) Polymeric materials;
    d) Fibre reinforced cement;
    e) Metal;
    f) Clay;
    It is not applicable to bonded cladding (cladding fixed with adhesives).

    British, European and International standards can be purchased from the British Standards Institution and bookshops.



    British Standards for stone
    • BS 8221 1:2000, Code of practice for cleaning and surface repair of buildings; Part 1 Cleaning of natural stones, brick and terracotta. BSI, 2000
    Rough block
    • BS EN 1467:2003 Natural stone. Rough blocks. Requirements
    • BS EN 1468:2003 Natural stone test methods. Rough slabs. Requirements
    Masonry, cladding, sills etc
    • BS EN 771-6:2001 Specification for masonry units. Natural stone masonry units
    • BS EN 772-11:2000 Methods of test for masonry units. Determination of water absorption of aggregate concrete, manufactured stone and natural stone masonry units due to capillary action and the initial rate of water absorption of clay masonry units
    • BS EN 772-4:1998 - Methods of test for masonry units. Determination of real and bulk density and of total and open porosity for natural stone masonry units
    • BS EN 772-20:2000 - Methods of test for masonry units. Determination of flatness of faces of masonry units
    • BS EN 1469:2004 Natural stone products. Slabs for cladding. Requirements
    • BS 5385-1:2009 - Wall and floor tiling. Design and installation of ceramic, natural stone and mosaic wall tiling in normal internal conditions. Code of practice
    • BS 5628-1:2005 - Code of practice for the use of masonry. Structural use of unreinforced masonry
    • BS 5628-3:2005 - Code of practice for the use of masonry. Materials and components, design and workmanship
    • BS 5642-1:1978 Sills and copings. Specification for window sills of precast concrete, cast stone, clayware, slate and natural stone
    • BS 5642-2:1983 Sills and copings. Specification for copings of precast concrete, cast stone, clayware, slate and natural stone
    • BS 8298:1994 Code of practice for design and installation of natural stone cladding and lining
    • BS EN 1052-4:2000 - Methods of test for masonry. Determination of shear strength including damp proof course
    • BS EN 1925:1999 - Natural stone test methods. Determination of water absorption coefficient by capillarity
    • BS EN 1926:2006 Natural stone test methods. Determination of uniaxial compressive strength
    • BS EN 1936:2006 - Natural stone test methods. Determination of real density and apparent density, and of total and open porosity
    • BS EN 12057:2004 Natural stone products. Modular tiles. Requirements
    • BS EN 12059:2008 Natural stone products. Dimensional stone work. Requirements
    • BS EN 12370:1999 Natural stone test methods. Determination of resistance to salt crystallization
    • BS EN 12371:2001 Natural stone test methods. Determination of frost resistance
    • BS EN 12372:2006 Natural stone test methods. Determination of flexural strength under concentrated load
    • BS EN 12407:2007 Natural stone test methods. Petrographic examination
    • BS EN 13161:2008 Natural stone test methods. Determination of flexural strength under constant moment
    • BS EN 13364:2002 Natural stone test methods. Determination of the breaking load at dowel hole
    • BS EN 13755:2008 Natural stone test methods. Determination of water absorption at atmospheric pressure
    • BS EN 13373:2003 Natural stone test methods. Determination of geometric characteristics on units
    • BS EN 13919:2002 - Natural stone test methods. Determination of resistance to ageing by SO2 action in the presence of humidity
    • BS EN 14066:2003 Natural stone test methods. Determination of resistance to ageing by thermal shock
    • BS EN 14146:2004 - Natural stone test methods. Determination of the dynamic elastic modulus of elasticity (by measuring the fundamental resonance frequency)
    • BS EN 14147:2003 Natural stone test methods. Determination of resistance to ageing by salt mist
    • BSEN 14157 Natural stone test methods. Determination of Abrasion Resistance
    • BS EN 14158:2004 Natural stone test methods. Determination of rupture energy
    • BS EN 14205:2003 Natural stone test methods. Determination of Knoop hardness
    • BS EN 14579:2004 Natural stone test methods. Determination of sound speed propagation
    • BS EN 14580:2005 Natural stone test methods. Determination of static elastic modulus
    • BS EN 14581:2004 Natural stone test methods. Determination of linear thermal expansion coefficient
    • BS 8000-3:2001 - Workmanship on building sites. Code of practice for masonry
    • BS 8000-11.2:1990 - Workmanship on building sites. Code of practice for wall and floor tiling. Natural stone tiles
    Paving, floor tiles, kerbs etc
    • BS EN 1341. Slabs of natural stone for external paving. Requirements and test methods
    • BS EN 1342. Setts of natural stone for external paving. Requirements and test methods
    • BS EN 1343. Kerbs of natural stone for external paving. Requirements and test methods
    • DD CEN/TS 15209:2008 Tactile paving surface indicators produced from concrete, clay and stone
    • BS EN 12058:2004 Natural stone products. Slabs for floors and stairs. Requirements
    • BS 5385-5:2009 Wall and floor tiling. Design and installation of terazzo, natural stone and agglomerated stone tile and slab flooring. Code of practice
    • BS 7533:1992 - Guide for structural design of pavements constructed with clay or concrete block pavers
    • BS 7533-4:2006 Pavements constructed with clay, natural stone or concrete pavers. Code of practice for the construction of pavements of precast concrete flags or natural stone slabs
    • BS 7533-6:1999 Pavements constructed with clay, natural stone or concrete pavers. Code of practice for laying natural stone, precast concrete and clay kerb units
    • BS 7533-7:2002 + AMD 1 Pavements constructed with clay, natural stone or concrete pavers. Code of practice for the construction of pavements of natural stone setts and cobbles
    • BS 7533-8:2003 - Pavements constructed with clay, natural stone or concrete pavers. Guide for the structural design of lightly trafficked pavements of precast concrete flags and natural stone flags
    • BS 7533-9. Pavements constructed with clay, natural stone or concrete pavers. Part 9. Code of practice for the construction of rigid pavements of clay pavers
    • BS 7533-10 + AMD1. Pavements constructed with clay, natural stone or concrete pavers. Guide for the structural design of trafficked pavements constructed of natural stone setts or concrete paving blocks
    • BS 7533-11:2003 Pavements constructed with clay, natural stone or concrete pavers. Code of practice for the opening, maintenance and reinstatement of pavements of concrete, clay and natural stone
    • BS 7533-12:2006 - Pavements constructed with clay, natural stone or concrete pavers. Guide to the structural design of trafficked pavements constructed on a bound base using concrete paving flags and natural stone slabs
    • BS 7533-13:2009 Pavements constructed with clay, natural stone or concrete pavers. Guide for the design of permeable pavements constructed with concrete paving blocks and flags, natural stone slabs and setts and clay pavers
    • BS 7533-10:2004 Pavements constructed with clay, natural stone or concrete pavers. Guide for the structural design of trafficked pavements constructed of natural stone setts
    • BS EN 14231:2003 - Natural stone test methods. Determination of the slip resistance by means of the pendulum tester
    Roofing
    • BS EN 12326-1:2004 Slate and stone products for discontinuous roofing and cladding. Product specification
    • BS EN 12326-2:2000 Slate and stone products for discontinuous roofing and cladding. Methods of test
    • BS5534:2003 Code of practice for slating and tiling
    • BS8000 Part 6:1990 Code of practice for slating and tiling of roofs and cladding
    There is a guide to testing stone slates and metamorphic slates on the Stone Roofing Association wesbite.